Who controls borders and immigration in Britain and Ireland?
The UK and the Republic of Ireland control their own borders and immigration, separate from the rest of the EU. This is enshrined in the Treaty of Amsterdam. THE LAW: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:11997D/TXT&from=EN
➡"The United Kingdom shall be entitled .. to exercise at its frontiers with other Member States such controls on persons seeking to enter the United Kingdom as it may consider necessary for the purpose:
(a) of verifying the right to enter the United Kingdom of citizens of States which are Contracting Parties
(b) of determining whether or not to grant other persons permission to enter the United Kingdom.
Nothing in the Treaty establishing the European Community or in any other provision of that Treaty or of the Treaty on European Union or in any measure adopted under them shall prejudice the right of the United Kingdom to adopt or exercise any such controls. References to the United Kingdom in this Article shall include territories for whose external relations the United Kingdom is responsible.
The United Kingdom and Ireland may continue to make arrangements between themselves relating to the movement of persons between their territories ('the Common Travel Area`)"
What is the 'freedom of movement agreement'?
This is the Schengen Agreement (or 'acquis') THE LAW https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2000:239:0001:0473:EN:PDF
➡"United Kingdom is therefore not taking part in the adoption of this Regulation and is not bound by it or subject to its application."
This is explained more in the 'Schengen Borders Code' THE LAW: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32016R0399
➡"The United Kingdom is therefore not taking part in the adoption of this Regulation and is not bound by it or subject to its application.. Ireland is.. not taking part in the adoption of this Regulation and is not bound by it or subject to its application."
The Withdrawal Agreement
A Freeport or 'Free Zone' is an area in a country where goods can be traded without (or with minimal) tax or regulation. They are useful where goods are brought into a country simply to be sent on elsewhere. Here is a list of existing freeports in the EU...
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